Combustion, Thermal Treatment, & Air Pollution Control Engineering

//Combustion, Thermal Treatment, & Air Pollution Control Engineering
Combustion, Thermal Treatment, & Air Pollution Control Engineering2018-08-02T21:30:59+00:00
Focus personnel design, evaluate, and operate treatment technologies and air pollution control equipment for our clients. This capability extends to virtually all kinds of processes and air pollution control equipment. Hands-on experience enables us to very effectively evaluate and recommend alternative/comparable energy sources as well as troubleshoot combustion problems and air pollution control equipment.

Combustion & Thermal Treatment

Combustion is one of the most significant industrial processes and also one of the most highly regulated. Combustion provides energy for process heating, reaction initiation, electricity generation, propulsion and transportation, food processing, fabrication, and waste treatment and destruction to name but a few applications.
Focus personnel have extensive experience in the design, evaluation, and operation of combustion systems and associated air pollution control equipment. This experience is the foundation of effective consulting for the full gamut of air pollution control systems. Focus is effective at evaluating alternative and comparable energy sources.


With our strong process and regulatory background, Focus engineers are well suited to perform technology assessment studies for energy consuming process systems. Our engineers conduct studies for energy efficiency, throughput optimization, increased operational capacity, use of alternative fuels, and emissions impacts. Focus engineers design and evaluate fans, ductwork, hooding, and general air handling systems.

Application of Combustion Equipment

Focus has experience with the following combustion equipment applications:

  • Hospital / Medical / Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWI)
  • Hazardous Waste Combustors (HWC)
  • Aggregate and Cement Kilns
  • Halogen Acid Furnaces
  • Industrial Boilers
  • Low Temperature Thermal Treatment
  • Commercial / Industrial Solid Waste Incinerators (CISWI)
  • Municipal Waste Incinerators
  • Sludge Incinerators

Emissions Estimates and Waste Characterization

Focus engineers have extensive experience estimating emissions from processes including estimation of removal efficiencies across various types of air pollution control systems using both theoretical and real world estimation techniques. Focus maintains a stack testing database to verify emissions estimates generated for specific applications. These estimates form the basis for air permit applications and design.
For the proper design of any treatment system, an accurate accounting of all process inputs is an essential requirement. Focus has developed special expertise and engineering analytical tools to ensure emissions and wastes are adequately characterized, categorized, and inventoried.

Emission Control Systems Engineering

Emission control systems must be engineered to capture before they can control. Focus engineers understand control techniques, capture velocities, and hooding configurations necessary to capture hot, buoyant plumes, hazardous gases, abrasive dusts, etc. We engineer emission control systems starting at the point of capture, through the hood, the adjoining ductwork, the many transitions, the control device, the fan, and the exhaust. We ensure pressure loss, material abrasion, material consistency (wet or sticky), and conveying velocity are taken into account. Relevant applications include particulate collection, mercury and other metal controls, acid gas scrubbing, organic emissions controls, and nitrogen oxide emission controls.

Air pollution control operations include:

  • Carbon adsorption systems
  • Cryogenic Condensers
  • Coolers / Chillers / Condensers
  • Quench chambers (full & partial)
  • Venturi scrubbers
  • Spray dryers
  • NOx control technologies
  • Dry sorbent injection
  • Venturi scrubber
  • Cyclones
  • Baghouses / fabric filter
  • Cartridge filters
  • Packed and spray scrubbers
  • Ionizing wet scrubbers
  • Free jet scrubbers
  • Electrostatic precipitators (dry & wet)
  • HEPA filter
  • Oxidizers
    • Catalytic
    • Recuperative
    • Regenerative
    • Direct fired

Combustion operations include:

  • Aggregate kilns
  • Burners
  • Calciners
  • Cement kilns
  • Conveyor furnaces
  • Fixed hearth incinerators
  • Fluidized bed incinerators
  • Fume incinerators
  • Glass furnaces
  • Halogen acid recovery furnaces
  • Waste heat boilers
  • Secondary combustion chambers
  • Lime kilns
  • Liquid injection incinerators
  • Mass burn incinerators
  • Moving hearth incinerators
  • Multiple hearth incinerators
  • Pyrolyzers
  • Rotary dryers
  • Rotary kiln incinerators
  • Wet oxidation processes
  • Thermal screws
  • Indirectly heated dryers
  • Industrial boiler

Energy Savings Calculations

Focus engineers conduct mass and energy balance calculations identifying the sources and potential drains on energy from a system, particularly thermal oriented systems. We use this knowledge and understanding to reduce energy losses and apply effective energy recovery techniques.

Alternative Fuel Evaluations

Alternative fuel sources can be a very effective way of reducing operational costs for a production facility. Focus engineers have the knowledge and experience to evaluate the feasibility of using alternative fuel sources and making sure that the modification does not cause other problems that would need to be addressed.

Process Modeling

Focus has developed an integrated system of proprietary process computer modeling programs to use in designing and evaluating a wide variety of combustion, air pollution control, and general chemical processing technologies. Focus in-house process engineering models include the following, among others:

  • Combustion system mass and energy balance model (CMEB)
  • Air pollution control system mass and energy balance model (AMEB)
  • Plume suppression mass and energy balance model (PLUME)
  • Process vent system model (VENT)
  • Quench chamber residence time model (QUENCH)

Other models are used for estimating process air emissions, fugitive emissions from contaminated soil, and air dispersion. Focus also licenses a number of other process modeling software packages for specific unit operations such as packed column design. Focus can create spreadsheet models for other processes to support optimization, troubleshooting, or upgrade design projects.


Focus developed and delivered a qualified operator training program for operators of hazardous waste combustors under in accordance with an ASME program. Although the program is no longer offered under ASME, Focus has knowledge and experience to develop and deliver site specific training for operators, supervisors, and managers to meet regulatory compliance.